মঙ্গলবার, ৩১ জুলাই, ২০১২

Be More Memorable by Repeating Your Speech Words (Anaphora)

What if your speeches were more?quotable?

What if your speeches were more powerful?

What if your speeches were more memorable?

Anaphora can do this for you. In this article, we examine how strategic use of repetition can elevate your speechwriting.

What is Anaphora? A Definition?

Anaphora is the Greek term used to describe the repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or sentences.

Anaphora, like many other rhetorical techniques, is commonly used in literature as well as in speeches. From literature, consider the opening words from Charles Dickens? Tale of Two Cities:

It was the best of times,
it was the worst of times,
it was the age of wisdom,
it was the age of foolishness,
it was the epoch of belief,
it was the epoch of incredulity,
it was the season of Light,
it was the season of Darkness,
it was the spring of hope,
it was the winter of despair,
we had everything before us,
we had nothing before us,
we were all going direct to Heaven,
we were all going direct the other way ?

Dickens? use of anaphora (combined with skillful use of contrast) helps make this passage one of the most famous openings in all of literature. He uses anaphora three times:

  • 10 clauses beginning with ?it was the?
  • 2 clauses beginning with ?we had?
  • 2 clauses beginning with ?we were all going direct?

Anaphora in ?I Have a Dream? and ?We Shall Fight?

In August, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. gave us one of the richest speech examples for anaphora. This includes ?I have a dream ?? and many other repetition-laden passages, including:

Now is the time?to?make real the promises of democracy.
Now is the time?to?rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice.
Now is the time?to?lift our nation from the quicksands of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood.
Now is the time?to?make justice a reality for all of God?s children.

In all, King?s speech contains eight examples of anaphora. For more examples, see the?Six Minutes?Speech Analysis of ?I Have a Dream?.

Another famous anaphora passage was delivered in the midst of World War II by?Winston Churchill in the House of Commons, June 4, 1940:

We shall go on to the end,
we shall fight in France,
we shall fight on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air,
we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be,
we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight in the hills;
we shall never surrender.

Other Anaphora Examples

While anaphora was used by King and Churchill in highly emotional passages, it doesn?t always need to be used in this way.

In the three examples below, anaphora is used more for its emphatic and unifying characteristics. As well, note that the second and third examples involve the repetition at the beginning of phrases (as opposed to the beginning of sentences):

Senator Margaret Chase, addressing Congress to speak against McCarthyism, June 1, 1950:

I speak as briefly as possible because too much harm has already been done with irresponsible words of bitterness and selfish political opportunism. I speak as simply as possible because the issue is too great to be obscured by eloquence. I speak simply and briefly in the hope that my words will be taken to heart.

I speak as a Republican, I speak as a woman. I speak as a United States Senator. I speak as an American.

Ronald Reagan, address following Challenger disaster, January 28, 1986:

We?ll continue our quest in space. There will be more shuttle flights and?more shuttle crews and, yes,?more volunteers,?more civilians,?more teachers in space. Nothing ends here; our hopes and our journeys continue.

Justin Trudeau, eulogy for his father, former Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau, 2000:

My father?s fundamental belief never came from a textbook. It stemmed from his deep love for and faith in all Canadians and over the past few days, with every card, every rose, every tear, every wave and every pirouette, you returned his love.

A Guide for Using Anaphora in Your Speeches

The examples above highlight how anaphora helps create more emotional, more powerful, more quotable, and more memorable passages.?But let?s be honest. We are rarely called to address a national or global audience on historic occasions.

So, in a ?normal? speech, can you benefit by using anaphora too? Yes, absolutely! You can use anaphora in the classroom, the boardroom, or the ballroom.

Keep these guidelines in mind when stitching anaphora into your speeches.

?Use anaphora strategically to highlight a passage which is central to your core message.?

Guideline 1: Don?t overdo it.

Contrary to the example from ?I have a dream?, it may be best to use anaphora sparingly within a speech. If you use it over and over again in every paragraph, its impact may be reduced. In most speeches, once or twice is probably enough.

Instead, use anaphora?strategically to highlight a passage which is central to your core message. There?s no rule that says where this should be, but opening or closing a speech with anaphora is common.

Guideline 2: Choose simple, yet important words to repeat.

In nearly every example in this article, the speaker chose to repeat common, one-syllable words. Simple language is always a good choice, but this is especially so for repeated words.

But ?simple? doesn?t mean the words are negligible. Consider:

  • King: ?Now is the time ?? and ?I have a dream ??
  • Churchill: ?We shall fight ??
  • Pope John Paul II: ?I hope that ?? (example below)

In each case, the repeated words echo key themes of the speech. King was sharing his dream and believed that the time had come for action. Churchill served notice that Britain was ready to fight. Pope John Paul II expressed hope for the future.

Guideline #3: Emphasize your delivery.

When speech examples are written out (as in this article), the anaphora is obvious. In a spoken speech, however, your audience doesn?t have this luxury. To achieve maximum effect, be sure to emphasize the repetitive words in your delivery. Enunciate clearly. Pause appropriately. Add vocal power if it makes sense to do so.

Guideline #4: Consider combining anaphora with other rhetorical devices.

To craft a really memorable passage, try weaving anaphora with another rhetorical device, such as:

  • the rule of three
  • epistrophe
  • climax

Rule of Three
When you combine anaphora with the rule of three, the result is strong unity between the three statements. For example, consider these three contemporary speech examples:

Steve Jobs, Stanford Commencement Speech, June 12, 2005:

My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor?s code for prepare to die.
It means to?try to tell your kids everything you thought you?d have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months.
It means to?make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family.
It means to?say your goodbyes.

Barack Obama, Inaugural Address, January 20, 2009:

For us, they?packed up their few worldly possessions and travelled across oceans in search of a new life.
For us, they?toiled in sweatshops and settled the West; endured the lash of the whip and plowed the hard earth.
For us, they?fought and died, in places like Concord and Gettysburg; Normandy and Khe Sahn.

J.A. Gamache, ?Being a Mr. G?, 2007:

A sandal of?hope when you reach out.
A sandal of?joy when you listen to your heart.
A sandal of?courage when you dare to care.

The mirror of anaphora, epistrophe is repetition at the end of consecutive clauses or sentences. With anaphora and epistrophe combined, you get sentences which begin and end with the same words. This focuses the attention on the connecting words in the middle, and magnifies the similarities or differences. For example:

Lyndon B. Johnson, March 15, 1965:

There is no?Negro?problem.
There is no?Southern?problem.
There is no?Northern?problem.
There is only an American?problem.

When successive sentences increase in scope, this is known as climax. Note the amplification in the passage below from Pope John Paul II as he transitions from individual (1 and 2) to country (3 and 4) to global community (5).

Pope John Paul II, Address to the United Nations General Assembly, October 2, 1979:

At the close of this address, I wish to express once more before all the high representatives of the States who are present a word of esteem and deep love for all the peoples, all the nations of the earth, for all human communities. Each one has its own history and culture.
I hope that?they will live and grow in the freedom and truth of their own history for that is the measure of the common good of each one of them.
I hope that?each person will live and grow strong with the moral force of the community that forms its members as citizens.
I hope that?the State authorities, while respecting the just rights of each citizen, will enjoy the confidence of all for the common good.
I hope that?all the nations, even the smallest, even those that do not yet enjoy full sovereignty, and those that have been forcibly robbed of it, will meet in full equality with the others in the United Nations Organization.
I hope that?the United Nations will ever remain the supreme forum of peace and justice, the authentic seat of freedom of peoples and individuals in their longing for a better future.

Your Turn: Try it Out!

You can add power and make your speeches more memorable. Craft one or two passages using anaphora, and your speechwriting will improve.

Try it out, and share your passage in the article comments.


Source: http://sixminutes.dlugan.com/anaphora/

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সোমবার, ৩০ জুলাই, ২০১২

Algebra Is Necessary, But What About How It's Taught? | PsySociety

stock image In a recent New York Times op-ed, Andrew Hacker suggested that the typical math curriculum might not really be a necessary aspect of modern education ? at least, not in the form that it currently takes. Hacker suggests that the textbook formulas found in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry classes are rarely used in ?real life,? and the high level of difficulty that many students have with these subjects might unnecessarily inflate dropout rates and cause a handful of other negative educational outcomes. As Hacker suggests, it might be beneficial to focus on the history and philosophy of mathematics or emphasize ?real life? applications of various mathematical fields, rather than zeroing in on the nitty-gritty formulas and minutiae of the math itself. After all, as he acknowledges, one of the most important reasons to learn math is not the math itself ? it is the importance of learning how to engage in deductive reasoning, problem solving, and critical analysis.

However, as fellow science blogger Joanne Manaster noted in a comment about the article, ?I?d argue that perhaps this is not so much about if math is needed, but how it is taught?geometry really helps with logic and thinking skills and algebra with general problem solving, so I don?t think it should go by the wayside altogether.?

I happen to agree enthusiastically with Manaster, and I?d like to hope that Hacker was intending for this larger pedagogical issue to be the main takeaway point for his article. I think it would be a mistake to conclude from this piece that we should simply remove algebra (or any math) from the typical school curriculum, or even that we should replace specific algebra, trigonometry, or geometry classes with broader ?quantitative literacy? courses, as Hacker suggests we should consider at one point. Rather, much as blogger and author Jennifer Ouellette did with calculus in her book The Calculus Diaries, I think the answer lies in finding ways to take this idea of ?real world applications? and using them to?help instructors continue teaching the typical lessons of the algebra, trigonometry, or geometry classrooms in a more effective manner, not using them to replace those lessons.1 Luckily, social psychology offers some theories that can help us understand how students might better learn and understand otherwise-esoteric knowledge.

In a study conducted back in the 1970s, participants were shown 40 trait adjectives (such as outgoing, moody, or adventurous). They were then asked to note either self-irrelevant characteristics of each word (e.g. the font size, sound, or definition of the word) or self-relevant characteristics (e.g. whether or not the word described their personalities). When participants were told to remember as many of the words as possible an hour later, they were significantly more likely to remember the adjectives for which they had answered the self-relevant questions. In other words, adjectives that they processed by thinking about whether or not they applied to themselves were stored better in memory than those that they had processed by thinking about characteristics like their definitions.

Research on this phenomenon, known as the self-reference effect, boils down to one main conclusion ? people are better able to remember events, facts, and knowledge when it is integrated into people?s self-concepts. If you process a speech, fact, problem, or mathematical postulate by personalizing it and applying it to your own life, you?ll be more likely to think about that information, remember it, and recall it later. Integrating information into pre-existing knowledge structures makes it easier to recall, and when it comes to our memory, there is no knowledge structure that is better established than the one containing information about our favorite subject: Ourselves.

But it doesn?t stop there. Not only do we process self-related information better, we understand things better when they?re situated within a social context as well.

As an example, look at the image on the left. Let?s say you need to prove (or disprove) the claim that if a card shows an even number on one face, then its opposite face must be red. Which card(s) must you turn over to test this?

Most people will say that you need to turn over two cards ? the card with the 8, and the solid red card. However, this isn?t correct. In order to test the claim, you do need to turn over the 8 to ensure that the opposite face is red. But, you don?t need to turn over the red card. You need to turn over the green card. You must ensure that the green card does not have an even number on the other side, or else that would invalidate the claim. It doesn?t actually matter what number is on the other side of the red card.

Whether or not you got this correct, the fact of the matter is that most people don?t. In fact, when this experiment was conducted, fewer than 10% of the subjects came up with the correct response. However, what if I asked the question this way?

You walk into a bar. You need to make sure that everyone drinking alcohol is over 21. Each card shown here has a customer?s age on one side, and what he/she is drinking on the other. Which card(s) must you turn over to enforce this rule?

All of a sudden, the answer seems obvious ? and most people quickly figure out the solution. You need to turn over the ?16,? to make sure that the 16-year-old is not drinking beer, and you need to turn over the ?Drinking Beer? card, to make sure that the person drinking it is not underage. It doesn?t matter how old the person drinking soda is, nor does it matter what the 25-year-old is drinking.

Bottles at a Bar -- Creative Commons

Photo by Edwin Land via Flickr

This task is exactly the same as the first one ? with one key difference. The latter task involves?social information. The researchers who ran this variation of the first task (formally known as the Wason Card Selection Task) confirmed that when it comes to deductive reasoning, we simply process social information better than other types of knowledge. Once you place the logic test in a bar with underage drinkers, it suddenly becomes easy to figure out its solution.

We?ve now learned that people process, understand, and remember information better when it is presented in one of two ways ? when it pertains to the self, and when it?s situated within a social context. If we can characterize human nature in any universal way, it would be that we are predominantly self-concerned and social creatures. This means that making knowledge relevant to the self or relevant to a social situation should make it easier to understand, remember, and apply.

What?s important to note is that this doesn?t necessarily mean changing the content of the instruction. I think that Hacker is on to something by suggesting that we should be applying all of these mathematical concepts to students? lives, but this doesn?t mean that we have to replace formulas and postulates with applications that are as literal as his suggestions. Making something self-relevant could be as simple as asking students to spend 5 minutes thinking about how they might use a certain mathematical concept in the future jobs they would like to hold or advising students to create mnemonic devices for formulas that incorporate the names of the students? friends and families. Making something socially relevant is simply a matter of creative framing. After all, in the demonstration above with the two card tasks, the second card task was testing the exact same logical reasoning process as the first one ? it simply framed the question differently.

There?s no need to fundamentally alter the content of our mathematics curriculum, even if its current format is flawed. Applying mathematical concepts to people?s ?real lives? does not necessitate throwing the baby out with the bathwater. We can keep teaching current algebra, trigonometry, and geometry content in our schools, and we can even teach them better ? as long as these lessons are constructed with the audience?s two chief concerns in mind.

1. As you might guess, I?m probably biased towards this strategy seeing as the idea of taking pop culture/real life situations and using them to explain & understand science is?the entire point of this blog.


Rogers, T.B., Kuiper, N.A., & Kirker, W.S. (1977). Self-Reference and the Encoding of Personal Information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.35.9.677

Klein, S. B., & Loftus, J. (1988). The nature of self-referrent encoding: The contribution of elaborative and organizational processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Wason, P. C., & Shapiro, D. (1971). Natural and contrived experience in a reasoning problem. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23 DOI: 10.1080/00335557143000068

Cosmides, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition DOI: 10.1016/0010-0277(89)90023-1

Source: http://psysociety.wordpress.com/2012/07/29/algebra-is-necessary/

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Icom UK, Official Radio Communications Supplier - British Marine ...

29 July 2012

Icom are pleased to be continuing their support of Ramsgate Week which will be held between 30th July ? 4th August 2012 this year. Icom are once again proud to be named as the ?Official Radio Communications Suppliers? to the regatta which has been a feature of the town?s calendar for over 110 years. Ramsgate Week 2012 is widely recognised as the friendly regatta and the alternative to Cowes and attracts approximately 100 boats from Great Britain and the continent.

Icom UK will be supplying the regatta with Icom marine handheld VHF radios, which will be used by the safety fleet and on shore organisers in the management of Ramsgate Week. The radios will be the primary means of communication for the race management team, race control and safety fleet. The Icom handhelds will be used by officials to oversee events both on and off the water, and will also be used to respond quickly and efficiently to any emergencies that may arise.

Organised by the Royal Temple Yacht Club, Ramsgate Week is the third largest international regatta in the UK, featuring about 100 boats from Great Britain and overseas. For more details of this year?s event, please go to www.ramsgateweek.com.

Source: http://www.bmea.org/news/2012/icom-uk-official-radio-communications-supplier-to-ramsgate-week-2012/

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Source: http://lindseyburgess9499.typepad.com/blog/2012/07/icom-uk-official-radio-communications-supplier-british-marine.html

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রবিবার, ২৯ জুলাই, ২০১২

Exterior doors Toronto - Stuff to Think about Whenever Switching ...

by plumberma jo
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Source: http://www.ideamarketers.com/?articleid=3438711

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শনিবার, ২৮ জুলাই, ২০১২

How My Digital Dispatch Might Help Your Company | Internet and ...

My Digital Dispatch is a program that will help you change and shift the manner in which you carry out your business online. If you do business on eBay, then it is going to take your business to a new level. How many products you?ve got does not matter?you could have one or a hundred. In essence what it gives you is an employee to do your bidding 24/7 without your having to pay a salary to get it. In only a few minutes, by changing the selling of your digital products to auto-pilot you can actually send your sales through the roof. Are you attempting to go around eBay?s ban on digital products? Maybe it has pushed you to lose money and you?re attempting to get that money back. Naturally you don?t want to have to stand in a long line at the post office to mail the CDs you have had to produce.

You will get an all-in-one solution for product management by using My Digital Dispatch. It even will help you convert digital products into CDs and DVDs to make them physical, that will help you get around the eBay ban. When you get a payment, the products get converted and sent to your customers without any hands on action from you. Your focus can certainly get back to earning money then and the program works the way a full time employee who is in charge of customer service and product delivery would. It is a great one-stop solution for whoever wishes to take digital products and sell them anywhere on the web. You can use it to help make your business, marketing and list building tasks into one smooth automated operation that does nothing but help you make money.

If you wish to put your business on auto-pilot, one of the better ways to do this is to use My Digital Dispatch. You will be able to get your ebooks or informational products sent immediately after the completion of the purchase, and they are going to go directly to the customer. Customer support is absolutely taken care of, and useless refunds will not happen. It will help you find a workable solution to help you sell on eBay without breaking the new terms of service there. You will find Kunaki integration which transforms any digitally based products into physical products (CDs and DVDs) quickly.

This program could be integrated with any autoresponder service that automatically adds your customers to a segregated list. This way any client that bought a particular product can be emailed any time you would like. You are free of the worry of processing payments and shipments. The application keeps track of each person who has already paid and each individual who still needs to send in their payments. By clicking your mouse just a few times, it will be easy to put in place immediate upselling and back end sales.

In case you are intending on establishing a long term internet business there are certain tools that can make your job much easier. My Digital Dispatch tools is just one of the tools, particularly for individuals who would like to resume their eBay sales. You should at least check it out to determine if it can help your business. You will find there?s 60 day money back guarantee, if you decide it doesn?t help your business.

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Source: http://www.4mpu.com/blog/how-my-digital-dispatch-might-help-your-company/

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Cray XK6 Supercomputer Used To Simulate Ice Cream

An anonymous reader writes "The processing power available inside modern supercomputers isn't just able to help us better understand the universe we live in, develop better medicines, and model complex systems. Apparently it is also helping to make better ice cream. Research has been carried out at the University of Edinburgh to simulate the soft matter that makes up ice cream. More specifically, scientists are trying to understand the complex interactions occurring between the many different ingredients that make up your favorite flavor of the delicious cold stuff."

Source: http://rss.slashdot.org/~r/Slashdot/slashdotScience/~3/BxzGxl1WJ2Y/cray-xk6-supercomputer-used-to-simulate-ice-cream

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শুক্রবার, ২৭ জুলাই, ২০১২

Real Estate Buying Advice And Tips Here | ABC City Hotels Inc

Purchasing property is becoming popular today, whether as a hobby or for a career. More and more people realize the importance of being able to buy their property without being subjected to any loan scams or other money-losing propositions. You can begin immediately. These tips are here to help you find out more about what to expect.

Exercise flexibility when making decisions. You probably won?t be able to get everything on your want list, but narrowing it down to a few things you absolutely have to have can give you a lot of what you want. If you can?t find a home in the perfect neighborhood with all your amenities, find one with the amenities in a different neighborhood.

When you are a real estate investor, keep your real goals in mind. Determine what the time horizon is for your goals. If the investment doesn?t match those goals, don?t consider it. Oftentimes, owners overlook their own needs in favor of a supposed bargain, and lose out on better opportunities in the process.

If you are leaning toward buying a house with a view, do not pay a high premium for the view lot. While you may feel the view is worth the extra expense, if you decide to sell the home down the road your potential buyers may not. Pay for the home and view you love, but don?t pay too much.

Educate yourself thoroughly on mortgage loan terms if you are in the market to purchase a home. Understanding these mortgage terms will avoid later confusion regarding the amount of the monthly payment as well as the total coast paid over the lifetime of the loan.

Ask for closing cost assistance from the seller to save yourself some up front expenses. Ask them about ?buying down? your interest rate for about a couple of years. Keep in mind, though, if you request financial incentives from the seller, he will probably be less willing to negotiate on the home?s selling price.

If you?re buying a home for yourself, it?s smart to bring somebody with you who knows about home buying. This person might notice something you had not, or know more about a certain issue than you do. Before you view a property, make sure you let the person know that he or she is free to ask the agent questions about the home.

If a seller doesn?t accept your offer on the home, don?t be surprised if they still manage to make the home affordable for you. Perhaps the seller will offer to cover the closing costs or pay for the some of the property?s needed repairs .

Consider investing in a real estate attorney when you are dealing with foreclosure purchases. Foreclosure transactions can get complicated, so it is wise to have access to a legal representative who can take care of your interests and concerns. This can result in big money savings for you at the end.

You now should understand why this is a popular career. There are multiple methods to do it. There?s a lot of information out there on how to get started, research, and purchase with the best of them. If you use the advice in this article, you have a great head start on acquiring the perfect property for your needs.

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Source: http://www.abc-real-estate.com/2012/07/real-estate-buying-advice-and-tips-here/

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Scientists use microbes to make 'clean' methane

ScienceDaily (July 27, 2012) ? Microbes that convert electricity into methane gas could become an important source of renewable energy, according to scientists from Stanford and Pennsylvania State universities.

Researchers at both campuses are raising colonies of microorganisms, called methanogens, which have the remarkable ability to turn electrical energy into pure methane -- the key ingredient in natural gas. The scientists' goal is to create large microbial factories that will transform clean electricity from solar, wind or nuclear power into renewable methane fuel and other valuable chemical compounds for industry.

"Most of today's methane is derived from natural gas, a fossil fuel," said Alfred Spormann, a professor of chemical engineering and of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford. "And many important organic molecules used in industry are made from petroleum. Our microbial approach would eliminate the need for using these fossil resources."

While methane itself is a formidable greenhouse gas, 20 times more potent than CO2, the microbial methane would be safely captured and stored, thus minimizing leakage into the atmosphere, Spormann said.

"The whole microbial process is carbon neutral," he explained. "All of the CO2 released during combustion is derived from the atmosphere, and all of the electrical energy comes from renewables or nuclear power, which are also CO2-free."

Methane-producing microbes, he added, could help solve one of the biggest challenges for large-scale renewable energy: What to do with surplus electricity generated by photovoltaic power stations and wind farms.

"Right now there is no good way to store electricity," Spormann said. "However, we know that some methanogens can produce methane directly from an electrical current. In other words, they metabolize electrical energy into chemical energy in the form of methane, which can be stored. Understanding how this metabolic process works is the focus of our research. If we can engineer methanogens to produce methane at scale, it will be a game changer."

'Green' methane

Burning natural gas accelerates global warming by releasing carbon dioxide that's been trapped underground for millennia. The Stanford and Penn State team is taking a "greener" approach to methane production. Instead of drilling rigs and pumps, the scientists envision large bioreactors filled with methanogens -- single-cell organisms that resemble bacteria but belong to a genetically distinct group of microbes called archaea.

By human standards, a methanogen's lifestyle is extreme. It cannot grow in the presence of oxygen. Instead, it regularly dines on atmospheric carbon dioxideand electrons borrowed from hydrogen gas. The byproduct of this microbial meal is pure methane, which methanogens excrete into the atmosphere.

The researchers plan to use this methane to fuel airplanes, ships and vehicles. In the ideal scenario, cultures of methanogens would be fed a constant supply of electrons generated from emissions-free power sources, such as solar cells, wind turbines and nuclear reactors. The microbes would use these clean electrons to metabolize carbon dioxide into methane, which can then be stockpiled and distributed via existing natural gas facilities and pipelines when needed.

When the microbial methane is burnt as fuel, carbon dioxide would be recycled back into the atmosphere where it originated from -- unlike conventional natural gas combustion, which contributes to global warming.

"Microbial methane is much more ecofriendly than ethanol and other biofuels," Spormann said. "Corn ethanol, for example, requires acres of cropland, as well as fertilizers, pesticides, irrigation and fermentation. Methanogens are much more efficient, because they metabolize methane in just a few quick steps."

Microbial communities

For this new technology to become commercially viable, a number of fundamental challenges must be addressed.

"While conceptually simple, there are significant hurdles to overcome before electricity-to-methane technology can be deployed at a large scale," said Bruce Logan, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Penn State. "That's because the underlying science of how these organisms convert electrons into chemical energy is poorly understood."

In 2009, Logan's lab was the first to demonstrate that a methanogen strain known as Methanobacterium palustre could convert an electrical current directly into methane. For the experiment, Logan and his Penn State colleagues built a reverse battery with positive and negative electrodes placed in a beaker of nutrient-enriched water.

The researchers spread a biofilm mixture of M. palustre and other microbial species onto the cathode. When an electrical current was applied, the M. palustre began churning out methane gas.

"The microbes were about 80 percent efficient in converting electricity to methane," Logan said.

The rate of methane production remained high as long as the mixed microbial community was intact. But when a previously isolated strain of pure M. palustre was placed on the cathode alone, the rate plummeted, suggesting that methanogens separated from other microbial species are less efficient than those living in a natural community.

"Microbial communities are complex," Spormann added. "For example, oxygen-consuming bacteria can help stabilize the community by preventing the build-up of oxygen gas, which methanogens cannot tolerate. Other microbes compete with methanogens for electrons. We want to identify the composition of different communities and see how they evolve together over time."

Microbial zoo

To accomplish that goal, Spormann has been feeding electricity to laboratory cultures consisting of mixed strains of archaea and bacteria. This microbial zoo includes bacterial species that compete with methanogensfor carbon dioxide, which the bacteria use to make acetate -- an important ingredient in vinegar, textiles and a variety of industrial chemicals.

"There might be organisms that are perfect for making acetate or methane but haven't been identified yet," Spormann said. "We need to tap into the unknown, novel organisms that are out there."

At Penn State, Logan's lab is designing and testing advanced cathode technologies that will encourage the growth of methanogens and maximize methane production. The Penn State team is also studying new materials for electrodes, including a carbon-mesh fabric that could eliminate the need for platinum and other precious metal catalysts.

"Many of these materials have only been studied in bacterial systems but not in communities with methanogens or other archaea," Logan said. "Our ultimate goal is to create a cost-effective system that reliably and robustly produces methane from clean electrical energy. It's high-risk, high-reward research, but new approaches are needed for energy storage and for making useful organic molecules without fossil fuels."

The Stanford-Penn State research effort is funded by a three-year grant from the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford.

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Stanford University. The original article was written by Mark Shwartz.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: Views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120727144534.htm

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Smaller Small business Consultants: Stay away from Clientele ...

Quite little organizations, these with much less than a handful of PCs, typically use informal peer-to-peer networks to share files and printers. This really is in sharp contrast to an extra robust client/server network using a dedicated server laptop or computer, and often selected to keep expenses to a minimum.

They?re commonly built around a consumer-oriented operating system, for example Microsoft Windows 98 or Microsoft Windows ME.

Modest Enterprise Consultants and Peer-to-Peer Networks Don?t Mix

Although rarely utilized inside the field, a business-grade desktop OS on a dedicated, business-class Pc can offer a solid ?happy medium? between extreme low-budget solutions and additional robust (and extra highly-priced) client/server solutions.

For compact business enterprise consultants on the other hand, peer-to-peer networks are normally not a fantastic factor ? unless naturally an upgrade is imminent.

Peer-to-Peer Networks Typically Include Other Challenges

Considering the fact that peer-to-peer networks are generally selected to help keep expenses to a minimum, there is commonly tiny or no budget for outside smaller business enterprise consultants or the owner or manager has plenty of funds, but just doesn?t ?believe? in the value of technologies.

Lots of instances peer-to-peer networks go hand-in-hand with a lot of other undesirable IT difficulties, for example a total inattention to software package licensing, information security, virus protection and information backup.

The Bottom Line about Modest Small business Consultants

On the flip side nevertheless, the above ?IT-plagued? smaller business enterprise may well be so fed up with the unreliable performance of their peer-to-peer network, the owner or manager may possibly ultimately be receptive to your dedicated-server recommendations. And as their little enterprise consultant, that?s your golden chance!

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Source: http://artyapt.com/blog/smaller-small-business-consultants-stay-away-from-clientele-working-with-peer-to-peer-networks/

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বৃহস্পতিবার, ২৬ জুলাই, ২০১২

Don't Quit Your Day Job Just Yet Internet Marketers | Blog Fully

Many people hear about Internet Marketing and assume as soon as they get started they'll be able to quit their jobs and make six figures from home with ease. As we all know, this is not the case. It takes time and mastery to get to this level especially in the beginning so if Internet Marketing is going to be your only source of income I don't suggest quitting your job just yet. it will be a rough start for you and the truth is, you might just end up in debt before you even make your first dollar online.

What's in the bag? Business of Software 2010

I don't recommend for people to quit their jobs until they have found a sure way to consistently make at least the same amount of money online as they were making working a job. It takes months to start making good money from the internet and during these months you do not want to not have another source of income coming in as back up. Don't get me wrong though, there are situations where it might be best for you to quit your job and focus on your Online business but be realistic with yourself before making this decision. If you do decide to quit your job make sure that you have a realistic plan and that you will be more than 100% committed to making your business grow and produce steady income for you. Many people quit their jobs and then they get stuck at the "now what?" phase.

My advice is to keep your job in the beginning and invest at least 10 - 20% of your paychecks into your online business. This way you will have some start-up money for your business that you can spend on advertising and building yourself a list, which I believe to be is a very important asset for all online businesses.

You can use the investment money that you save up from your paychecks and purchase Solo Ads and do Facebook PPC to drive targeted traffic to your sites. Another thing that you can do with this is pay for a Virtual Assistant and outsource some of your work to make things easier for you and allow you to focus more on the most important aspects of your business.

As you start to save up more and more and invest more into it, your returns on the investment will grow and if you are consistent, you will reach a point where you start to make more money online than you do at your job and then you can finally quit.

Don't rush things. Be realistic with yourself and the progress you are making and make smart decisions.

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Related posts:

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  5. Better Internet Marketing ? Use These Starter Tips

Source: http://blogfully.com/dont-quit-your-day-job-just-yet-internet-marketers/

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Coping Along with A Liked Ones' Eating Disorder For the duration of ...

For most persons, the particular christmas season can be a fantastic time of year. It?s often a time of family reunion, socializing, and also celebration ? a time when families, friends, not to mention coworkers come together in order to share advantageous definitely will and good food. The actual season is actually meant to be bright, happy, as well as full for the best of affairs. However, for those who suffer alongside eating disorders, this really is regularly the worst time associated with the year. For all those that are caught in the private hell of anorexia, bulimia, or binge eating disorder, the actual Holidays frequently increase their individual problems, causing them great internal pain as well as turmoil.
At Center for Change, you currently have asked many patients over time to be able to share from their private experiences just what the particular Holiday breaks have been like during the course of the years the two suffered with a great eating disorder. The actual women quoted in this particular article tend to be of different ages, however every one of the suffered with all the disease for many years. Because anyone read the following passages you?ll feel anything of the agony of suffering with a great eating disorder at this particular festive time of year.
?Unlike any other normal teen, I constantly hated it whenever the actual christmas season would certainly roll about. It meant that I would certainly need to face my two worst enemies ? food and adults, and additionally a great deal of them. I usually felt totally from region and this wicked child with regard to these a happy environment. I was actually truly the only person who did not really like food, adults, plus celebrations. Rather, holiday breaks for me personally happened to be a celebration of worry and additionally isolation. I would certainly lock myself within my room. Possibly no one else gathered body weight over the actual vacations, however, really the odor of food added body weight with my human body. My anorexia ruined any kind of joy or simply affairs I may have had.? -Nineteen-year-old woman
?The actual holiday season is obviously the actual most difficult time of year throughout dealing with my eating disorder. Holidays, within my family, tend to be able to center about food. The actual mixture of dealing along with the anxiety of being about family and also the focus on food tends to be a huge trigger for me to be able to easily fall into my eating disorder behaviors. I want to rely about outside help in order to ideal cope with the stresses associated with the holiday breaks.? -Twenty-one-year-old lady
?Over the particular previous very few years, for the duration of the actual Thanksgiving and also Christmas christmas season I currently have felt terrible. I felt caught plus like the actual food ended up being out to receive me personally. I lied on limitless times to avoid every of the parties plus big dinners which go and the actual holiday breaks. I felt horrible about my human body not to mention didn?t need everybody to find me personally eat for worry the two would make judgments about me.? -Eighteen-year-old lady
These quotes from women suffering from anorexia, bulimia, as well as binge eating show the particular psychological intensity they think in the course of the particular holiday season. Their fear of gaining fat as well as becoming, throughout their heads, fat, gross, as well as disgusting, is actually the monster they must deal along with each and every time the two partake of just about anyall foods which happen to be so wonderful and also common to be able to the particular vacations.
Starving for the actual Holidays ? A Tale of Anorexia
Those trying with anorexia tend to be terrified of the holiday breaks due to the fact the two have no clue what a regular amount of food can be for themselves. Almost all of them feel that anything the two eat will certainly indicate instant weight gain. In actuality, a couple of them have mentioned that really the actual sight or alternatively odor of food is terrifying with them considering their fear of being fat and / or becoming fat is really ever-present in their heads. For a number of, simply thinking about food can be enough in order to create intense chaos, pain, as well as guilt. Anorexia creates tremendous guilt about any kind of indulgence involving food. The eating of food will become evidence, in their mind, which they are weak, out of control, and undisciplined. Anorexic people are really usually terrified of being seen eating food or alternatively of having persons consider them while they eat. 1 client felt that each eye ended up being about her at holiday gatherings. Numerous suffering with anorexia have shared their emotions of being immobilized by their worries regarding food.
?My existence along with a great eating disorder throughout the vacations typically is a living hell ? nonstop hiding and in addition worry, confused regarding everyday living and in addition hating every moment being surrounded by food. Right now there was and so much stress, thus many stares and glances, plus days along with limitless comments. My entire life was a mess. Right now there was a great deal pain not to mention guilt within me not to mention I didn?t know where in order to turn, except with my eating disorder. I hated the pressure of eating the actual food, the actual relentless thinking of offending some others.? -Twenty-two-year-old woman
?It?s difficult with be around just about all the food plus festivities. When I am pain inside not to mention trying alongside what ?normal? food portions actually are, I want the assistance, emotional learning, and also support of family and in addition some other people. ?Handle alongside care, but yet please handle.? Accept me personally the particular way I feel. Let me back with regard to the family? -Twenty-three-year-old female
The actual importance of these quotes from clients in treatment for anorexia typically is found with regard to their straightforward expression of the great stress as well as conflict they feel inside in reaction in order to the particular normal food and in addition social escapades associated with the season. Their internal suffering and additionally pain usually are usually invisible from those about them by their constant remarks regarding ?being fat,? and / or will as well be invisible in their designs of avoidance plus withdrawal from social involvements.
The Undetectable Animal of Holiday Feasts ? Tales of Bulimia plus Binge Eating
About the alternative end associated with the eating disorder spectrum, a lady alongside severe bulimia or simply binge eating disorder finds the actual holiday breaks usually are a genuine nightmare given that there is really a lot focus on food that they become preoccupied alongside it. Binge eating and even next purges become a lot more prevalent due to the fact most foods and even sweets that are associated along with christmas celebrations are really fairly enticing with them. The actual vacations could be a time of convenient indulgence, but also a time of good shame and also self-reproach given that of their information everyday living. Several really employ the binge eating and/or purging as a form of self-punishment throughout the vacations.

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Source: http://www.blv-articles.com/coping-along-with-a-liked-ones-eating-disorder-for-the-duration-of-the-actual-holidays/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=coping-along-with-a-liked-ones-eating-disorder-for-the-duration-of-the-actual-holidays

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Russia: fresh EU sanctions on Syria "counterproductive"

MOSCOW (Reuters) - Russia on Wednesday said fresh European Union sanctions against Syria were "counterproductive" and said it would not recognize measures it viewed as a de-facto blockade of the country.

The Foreign Ministry expressed dismay over measures requiring EU member states to inspect sea and air cargoes headed for Syria from third countries if they suspect weapons may be on board.

"Russia does not recognize (the EU sanctions) and views them as counterproductive, not capable of resolving the situation in Syria," the statement said, adding it went against the letter and the spirit of a peace plan set out by international mediator Kofi Annan.

(Reporting by Gabriela Baczynska; Editing by Alissa de Carbonnel)

Source: http://news.yahoo.com/russia-fresh-eu-sanctions-syria-counterproductive-091106790.html

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New Mac operating system goes on sale Wednesday

In this Thursday, July 19, 2012, photo an Apple customer Shayan Hooshmand, 11, uses PhotoBooth on a 21.5-inch iMac at an Apple store in Palo Alto, Calif. Apple Inc. reports quarterly financial results after the market closes on Tuesday, July 24. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma)

In this Thursday, July 19, 2012, photo an Apple customer Shayan Hooshmand, 11, uses PhotoBooth on a 21.5-inch iMac at an Apple store in Palo Alto, Calif. Apple Inc. reports quarterly financial results after the market closes on Tuesday, July 24. (AP Photo/Paul Sakuma)

(AP) ? Apple Inc. released its new operating system for Mac computers on Wednesday, with features borrowed from mobile devices and a tighter integration with online file storage.

Dubbed Mountain Lion, the new software narrows the gap between the PC and phone software packages, making Mac personal computers work more like iPhones and iPads.

It's similar to what Microsoft Corp. is doing with its forthcoming Windows 8 system. That system, to be released Oct. 26, will bring the look and user interface of Windows Phone to PCs.

Mountain Lion costs $20 and is being sold only as a download. Only computers running the two most recent versions of Mac OS, Lion and Snow Leopard, can be upgraded.

Macs bought on or after June 11 can be upgraded for free.

Among the features of Mountain Lion:

? The new software has better integration with social networks such as Twitter. Facebook integration is coming this fall. It has built-in features to facilitate sharing on such services. For instance, you'll get notifications when you get a message or a mention in a Facebook or Twitter post. You need to sign in only once, and you can share directly from other apps you are using.

? Power Nap keeps your Mac updated even while it's in power-saving "sleep" mode. It will get your email messages, back up your files and download software updates automatically. It will work with recent MacBook Air computers and the higher-end MacBook Pro model, the one with the sharper, "Retina" display.

? A new Messages app, copied from Apple's mobile operating system, replaces iChat. It will allow you to send messages to other Apple users, whether that person is on a Mac or an Apple mobile device.

? Mountain Lion integrates with iCloud, the new Internet storage service designed for the mobile devices.

? The software brings dictation to Macs, essentially allowing the computer to type as you talk.

? Game Center stores high game scores and helps users find opponents on both Macs and Apple mobile devices.

Associated Press

Source: http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/495d344a0d10421e9baa8ee77029cfbd/Article_2012-07-25-US-TEC-Apple-Mountain-Lion/id-858ef43a7b3741bb8473812875930b94

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Scope of Animation (Ezine Ready)

Animation as a Career option is one such field where one can fulfill his / her dreams while enjoying work and getting self satisfaction and praise from the audiences.

One can study animation, graphics and multimedia courses either full time or part time student. Several programs are offered like certificates, diplomas, and degrees etc. While admission into full time courses, i.e. diplomas and degrees etc is offered on the basis of entrance exam, admission into part time and short term courses is offered on first come first serve basis.

Animation in India has come a long way with Indian animations catering to the needs of several private and public sectors and indigenously produced animated films constituting the bulk.
Various T.V programs, advertisements / commercials and computer games are demanding a huge quantity of manpower from the Indian market. Animation is also being used in titling films, creating special effects or in web entertainment programs. Thus the scope for students of animation is huge in the context of the emerging Indian market.

?There are many number of top animation schools in all major cities and towns of India, both private and government for providing training in animation, graphics and multimedia. Many institutes also provide internship and arranges for job placement during or after completion of the course.

Some of the jobs offered in the industry are :
? Content developer
? Modeler ? Modeler is the one who makes the models for animation. They should have a solid understanding of anatomy, form and volume.
? Story Broad Artist ? Those with strong drawing skills could be hired as storyboard artists who can visualize a sequence of events from frame to frame.
? Character animator- They brings characters to life and generally has knowledge of traditional animation, stop-motion animation as well as claymation
? Background artist- The background artist is the person who specialises to paint the background of the characters and sets the background for the project.
? Layout artist- layout artist is just like a cinematographer of that animation project as they are decides the lighting and camera angles and he is sketching the background design for the animation.
? 2D animator ? They involves the creation of a high volume of separate drawings that define a sequence.
? In-between animator- In between animator one can learn all the basics of animation and it is the beginning position of an animator.
? Scanner operator-The scanner operator does the scanning of the clean up artist?s drawings.
? Compositing artist ? Compositing consists of layering individual frames of animation on top of one another to create final images. These images are then strung together to create complete shots or mini animated movies.
? Special effects artist ? They integrate live-action footage with Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) or other elements (such as model work)
? Audio & video specialist
? Visualiser
? Texture artist ? They applies a surface to the 3D modeled character, object or environment.
? Rigging artist ? A rigging artist takes the modeled, textured 3D character or object and sets it up with a skeletal system or joints (if required). Without this step, the 3D model would not be able to animate, talk or move fluidly and correctly.
? Clean-up artist- The clean up artist checks the accuracy and consistency of the designs and drawings. To be a good clean up artist, he should have good draft-man skill with the knowledge of density, width, volume and mass.
? Lighting artist ? They create variations of shade, colour intensity and shadows
Digital ink and paint artist- It is the duty of a digital ink and paint artist to give colours to each frame.
Compositor- It is the compositor brings together all the different characters and backgrounds in to single frame.
? Editor
? Key frame animator- Key frame animator draws the pictures of a movement?s beginning and end.
? Rendering artist ? They take all the data in a scene such as models, textures, animation, lighting, etc and output the correct combination in the form of individual frames of animation.
? 3D animator ? They takes the sculpted, textured and rigged 3D model and breathes life into it. This is done by putting in order the key frames such that they appear to be in motion.

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/multimedia-articles/scope-of-animation-6067299.html

About the Author


The author is one of the top animation schools of creative education, offering advanced diploma courses in animation, digital art, web designing, graphic designing, video editing, search engine optimization, php and final cut pro along with B.Sc and M.Sc in animation.

Source: http://www.enetworklink.com/scope_of_animation_ezine_ready/

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সোমবার, ২৩ জুলাই, ২০১২

New compounds inhibit prion infection

ScienceDaily (July 23, 2012) ? A team of University of Alberta researchers has identified a new class of compounds that inhibit the spread of prions, misfolded proteins in the brain that trigger lethal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals.

U of A chemistry researcher Frederick West and his team have developed compounds that clear prions from infected cells derived from the brain.

"When these designer molecules were put into infected cells in our lab experiments, the numbers of misfolded proteins diminished -- and in some cases we couldn't detect any remaining misfolded prions," said West.

West and his collaborators at the U of A's Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases say this research is not yet a cure, but does open a doorway for developing treatments.

"We're not ready to inject these compounds in prion-infected cattle," said David Westaway, director of the prion centre. "These initial compounds weren't created for that end-run scenario but they have passed initial tests in a most promising manner."

West notes that the most promising experimental compounds at this stage are simply too big to be used therapeutically in humans or animals.

Human exposure to prion-triggered brain disorder is limited to rare cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob or mad cow disease. The researchers say the human form of mad cow disease shows up in one in a million people in industrialized nations, but investigating the disease is nonetheless well worth the time and expense.

"There is a strong likelihood that prion diseases operate in a similar way to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, which are distressingly common around the world," said West.

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The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Alberta, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.

Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above.

Journal Reference:

  1. Charles E. Mays, Shaon Joy, Lei Li, Linghui Yu, Sacha Genovesi, Frederick G. West, David Westaway. Prion inhibition with multivalent PrPSc binding compounds. Biomaterials, 2012; 33 (28): 6808 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.06.004

Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead.

Disclaimer: This article is not intended to provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of ScienceDaily or its staff.

Source: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120723134856.htm

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Shooting suspect in court with orange-red hair

This photo combination shows a variety of facial expressions of James E. Holmes during his appearance at Arapahoe County District Court Monday, July 23, 2012, in Centennial, Colo. Holmes is accused of killing 12 and wounding 58 in a shooting rampage in a movie theater on Friday, July 20 in Aurora, Colo. (AP Photo/Denver Post, RJ Sangosti, Pool)

This photo combination shows a variety of facial expressions of James E. Holmes during his appearance at Arapahoe County District Court Monday, July 23, 2012, in Centennial, Colo. Holmes is accused of killing 12 and wounding 58 in a shooting rampage in a movie theater on Friday, July 20 in Aurora, Colo. (AP Photo/Denver Post, RJ Sangosti, Pool)

James E. Holmes, left, appears in Arapahoe County District Court, with defense attorney Tamara Brady, right, Monday, July 23, 2012, in Centennial, Colo. Holmes is being held on suspicion of first-degree murder, and could also face additional counts of aggravated assault and weapons violations stemming from a mass shooting on Friday, July 20, in a movie theater in Aurora, Colo., that killed 12 and injured dozens of others. (AP Photo/Denver Post, RJ Sangosti, Pool)

James E. Holmes appears in Arapahoe County District Court, Monday, July 23, 2012, in Centennial, Colo. Holmes is being held on suspicion of first-degree murder, and could also face additional counts of aggravated assault and weapons violations stemming from a mass shooting last Friday in a movie theater in Aurora, Colo., that killed 12 and injured dozens of others. (AP Photo/Denver Post, RJ Sangosti, Pool)

People visit a memorial for the victims in the shooting across the street from the Century 16 movie theater in Aurora, Colo., Sunday, July 22, 2012. James Eagen Holmes has been charged in the shooting at the Aurora theater early Friday that killed twelve people and injured more than 50.He is scheduled to appear in court Monday morning. (AP Photo/Ed Andrieski)

Serenity Brydon, 7, from Aurora, looks at a memorial near the the Century 16 movie theater Sunday, July 22, 2012, in Aurora, Colo. Twelve people were killed and dozens were injured in a shooting attack early Friday at the packed theater during a showing of the Batman movie, "The Dark Knight Rises." Police have identified the suspected shooter as James Holmes, 24. (AP Photo/Alex Brandon)

CENTENNIAL, Colo. (AP) ? His hair dyed a shocking comic-book shade of orange-red, James Holmes showed up in court for the first time, but didn't seem to be there at all.

The world's first look at the man accused of killing 12 moviegoers and injuring 58 others in a shooting rampage at a packed midnight screening of the new Batman film was that of a sleepy, seemingly inattentive suspect.

Holmes shuffled into court Monday in a maroon jailhouse jumpsuit with his hands cuffed. Unshaven and appearing dazed, Holmes sat virtually motionless, his eyes drooping as the judge advised him of the severity of the case. At one point, Holmes simply closed his eyes.

He never said a word.

Prosecutors said they didn't know if he was being medicated. His demeanor, however, angered victims' relatives. Tom Teves, whose son, Alex, was killed in the attack, watched Holmes intently throughout the roughly 12-minute hearing, sizing up the 24-year-old former doctoral student.

"I saw the coward in court today and Alex could have wiped the floor with him without breaking a sweat," Teves said. His son, a physical therapist, dove to protect his girlfriend during "The Dark Knight Rises" shooting at a multiplex in nearby Aurora in the Denver suburbs.

The court appearance gave millions the chance to scrutinize Holmes' every movement, every flutter of his heavy eyelids and form their opinions.

"It struck me that this is a person who's been through an emotional maelstrom and therefore might be totally wiped out emotionally," said Dr. Jeffrey Gardere, an assistant professor of behavioral medicine at Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine.

Gardere said there could be "a psychotic process going on and we see that being acted out there. Or there might be some sort of malingering going on. In other words, trying to make himself look worse than he actually is. Or maybe a combination of all of those things."

The hearing was the first confirmation that Holmes' hair was colored. On Friday, there were reports of his hair being red and that he told arresting officers that he was "The Joker." Batman's nemesis in the fictional Gotham has brightly colored hair.

Authorities have declined to confirm if Holmers told officers that he was Batman's enemy. Investigators found a Batman mask inside his apartment, a law enforcement official close to the investigation said Sunday on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to speak to the news media.

Holmes, whom police say donned body armor and was armed with an assault rifle, a shotgun and handguns during the attack, was arrested shortly afterward. His home was booby-trapped with a trip wire, explosives and unknown liquids that took a day to disarm.

Police have said Holmes began buying guns at Denver-area stores nearly two months before Friday's shooting and that he received at least 50 packages in four months at his home and at school.

Holmes, who is being held in isolation, is refusing to cooperate, authorities said. They said it could take months to identify a motive.

The shooting was the worst in the U.S. since the Nov. 5, 2009, attack at Fort Hood, Texas. An Army psychiatrist was charged with killing 13 soldiers and civilians and wounding more than two dozen others.

On Monday, security was tight as uniformed sheriff's deputies were stationed outside, including on the roofs of both court buildings.

Holmes' entrance into the courtroom was barely noticeable but relatives of shooting victims leaned forward in their seats to catch their first glimpse of him. Two women held hands tightly, one shook her head. One woman's eyes welled up with tears.

Holmes sat down in a jury box, next to one of his attorneys. When the judge asked him if he understood his rights, his attorneys did all the talking.

Christina "Crispy" Blache, who was shot in both legs during the rampage, watched clips of Holmes' court appearance afterward with her father, Robert Blache. Her father said Holmes looked insane, while the restaurant manager said she believed Holmes had no idea what he did.

"He seemed kind of out of it, just sitting there. I don't really know what to think as far as he goes because he didn't seem remorseful or anything," she said.

Prosecutor Carol Chambers said her office is considering pursuing the death penalty, but that a decision will be made in consultation with the victims' families.

David Sanchez, who waited outside the courthouse during the hearing, said his pregnant daughter escaped without injury but her husband was shot in the head and was in critical condition. His daughter was scheduled to deliver her baby on Monday.

"When it's your own daughter and she escaped death by mere seconds, I want to say it makes you angry," Sanchez said. He said his daughter, 21-year-old Katie Medley, and her husband, Caleb, 23, had been waiting for a year to watch the movie.

Asked what punishment is appropriate if Holmes is convicted, Sanchez said, "I think death is."

Chambers' office is responsible for the convictions of two of the three people on Colorado's death row.

Chambers also is the only state district attorney to seek the death penalty in a case in the last five years, said Michael Radelet, a sociology professor at the University of Colorado at Boulder who tracks death penalty cases.

Yet Colorado uses the death penalty relatively sparingly. There has only been one execution since it was reinstated by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1976. The state legislature fell one vote short of abolishing the death penalty in 2009.

At a news conference in San Diego, where Holmes' family lives, their lawyer, Lisa Damiani, refused to answer questions about him and his relationship to the family. She said later: "Everyone's concerned" about the possibility of the death penalty.

When asked if they stood by Holmes, Damiani said, "Yes they do. He's their son."

Holmes is expected to be formally charged next Monday. He is being held on suspicion of first-degree murder, and he could also face additional counts of aggravated assault and weapons violations. Holmes has been assigned a public defender.

Weeks before, Holmes quit a 35-student Ph.D. program in neuroscience for reasons that aren't clear. He had earlier taken an intense oral exam that marks the end of the first year but University of Colorado Denver officials would not say if he passed, citing privacy concerns.

At a news conference, university officials refused to answer questions about Holmes. "To the best of our knowledge at this point, we think we did everything that we should have done," Donald Elliman, the university chancellor.

The judge has issued an order barring lawyers in the case from publicly commenting on matters including evidence, whether a plea deal is in the works or results of any examination or test performed on someone.

Some of the victims' families, who had traveled to Colorado to attend the hearing, planned to return home to plan funerals. Chambers said her office would keep them informed through various methods, including the news media, while following the judge's order.

"At this point everyone is interested in a fair trial with a just outcome for everybody involved," she said.


Associated Press writers Kristen Wyatt and Thomas Peipert in Aurora; Dan Elliott and Colleen Slevin in Denver and Alex Katz in New York contributed to this report.

Associated Press

Source: http://hosted2.ap.org/APDEFAULT/3d281c11a96b4ad082fe88aa0db04305/Article_2012-07-23-Colorado%20Shooting/id-ea1824b76a8c4ff7bf065548ae52aecc

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